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Ecology and Related Studies is a degree category that consists of the following common degrees:
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$55kRead more about Ecology
Among the topics that may be studied in ecology degree programs are:
- Ecology, evolution, and adaptation
- Terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems
- Costs and benefits of social behaviors
- Estimation of population density
- Adaptations of predators
- Food chains
- Global patterns of biological diversity
- Environmental issues and resource management
- Global warming
- Ecological field and lab techniques
Programs typically combine classroom instruction with laboratory activity and fieldwork.
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$59kRead more about Marine Biology
What exists under the Earth’s waters has been a subject of fascination for hundreds, if not thousands of years. Studying sea life helps us understand the world we live in, especially since the oceans cover over 70% of the surface of our planet! There is an incredible amount of research to be done in this field, as scientists estimate that only about 5% of the oceans have been explored so far.
Marine biology is the study of marine or saltwater organisms in their natural habitat—and marine biologists study everything from microscopic picoplankton and single-celled bacteria, to giant kelp and the majestic blue whales. They focus on understanding how marine organisms function today in order to predict how ecosystems will cope with large-scale changes such as climate change, overfishing, pollution, and invasive species.
Research projects are at the heart of what most marine biologists do, whether it be actually collecting specimens in the field, compiling research data, finding real life applications for the research data, or classroom teaching.
The minimum educational requirement to work as a marine biologist is a university undergraduate degree. A graduate degree is required for independent research.
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$62kRead more about Evolutionary BiologyAn evolutionary biology degree is an academic program that focuses on the study of evolutionary processes and principles that shape the diversity of life on Earth. It provides future [evolutionary biologists](/careers/evolutionary-biologist/) with a comprehensive understanding of genetics, ecology, paleontology, and other related fields, while emphasizing the mechanisms and patterns of evolution. Here is a detailed breakdown of what an evolutionary biology degree typically entails: - Core Biological Sciences: An evolutionary biology degree program begins with foundational courses in biological sciences. These courses cover topics such as cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology, genetics, and ecology. They provide students with a strong understanding of basic biological concepts and principles. - Evolutionary Biology Fundamentals: As students progress in their degree, they delve into specific courses focused on evolutionary biology. These courses explore the mechanisms of evolution, including natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and gene flow. They also cover evolutionary processes at different levels, such as molecular evolution, population genetics, speciation, and macroevolutionary patterns. - Genetics and Genomics: Evolutionary biology heavily relies on genetics to understand the inheritance and variation of traits across generations. Courses in genetics and genomics provide students with knowledge of DNA structure, gene expression, inheritance patterns, and techniques for analyzing genetic data. This knowledge is essential for studying evolutionary processes and investigating the genetic basis of evolutionary change. - Ecology and Evolutionary Ecology: Evolutionary biologists also study the interaction between organisms and their environment. Courses in ecology and evolutionary ecology explore topics such as community dynamics, ecosystem functioning, adaptation to different environments, and the role of ecological interactions in driving evolutionary change. Students learn about the ecological factors that influence the evolution of organisms and the ecological consequences of evolutionary processes. - Paleontology and Fossil Record: Understanding the history of life and the fossil record is crucial for evolutionary biology. Courses in paleontology provide students with an understanding of fossil formation, dating methods, and the interpretation of fossil evidence. They learn to analyze fossils to reconstruct the evolutionary history of organisms, study patterns of biodiversity through time, and gain insights into evolutionary processes in deep time. - Data Analysis and Statistics: Evolutionary biology involves analyzing and interpreting large datasets, often using statistical methods and computational tools. Courses in data analysis and statistics equip students with the skills necessary to handle and analyze biological data. They learn statistical techniques, data visualization, programming languages, and computational tools commonly used in evolutionary biology research. - Research Experience: Many evolutionary biology degree programs emphasize hands-on research experience. Students have the opportunity to work on research projects under the guidance of faculty members or as part of research teams. This allows them to apply their knowledge and gain practical skills in experimental design, data collection, analysis, and scientific communication. - Electives and Specializations: Evolutionary biology is a diverse field, and degree programs often offer a range of electives that allow students to specialize in specific areas of interest. These may include topics such as molecular evolution, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), phylogenetics, behavioral ecology, or conservation genetics. Students can tailor their degree by selecting courses that align with their research interests and career goals. - Capstone Project or Thesis: Some evolutionary biology degree programs may require students to complete a capstone project or thesis. This independent research project allows students to demonstrate their ability to design and execute a research study, analyze data, and communicate their findings. It often serves as a culmination of their knowledge and research skills developed throughout the degree program. - Collaboration and Professional Development: Evolutionary biologists frequently collaborate with researchers from various disciplines. Degree programs encourage collaboration and provide opportunities for students to engage with peers and faculty members. They may participate in seminars, workshops, or conferences to present their research, network with professionals in the field, and stay updated on the latest developments in evolutionary biology. - Fieldwork and Practical Experience: Many evolutionary biology degree programs offer opportunities for fieldwork and practical experience. Students may participate in field trips, ecological surveys, or research expeditions to study organisms in their natural habitats. This hands-on experience allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge, develop field research skills, and gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of evolution in real-world settings. - Scientific Communication: Effective scientific communication is a crucial skill for evolutionary biologists. Students in an evolutionary biology degree program are often encouraged to develop their communication skills through scientific writing, oral presentations, and poster presentations. They learn to effectively convey their research findings, write scientific papers, and present their work to both scientific and non-scientific audiences. - Ethical Considerations: Evolutionary biology raises ethical considerations related to conservation, animal welfare, and genetic research. Degree programs may include courses or discussions on ethical issues in evolutionary biology. Students learn to critically analyze ethical dilemmas, consider the implications of their research, and develop a sense of responsibility in conducting their work in an ethical and responsible manner. - Professional Development and Career Preparation: Evolutionary biology degree programs often provide resources and guidance for career development. This can include workshops on scientific writing, grant writing, and job search strategies. Students may also receive mentorship from faculty members, who can offer guidance on career options, research opportunities, and further education, such as pursuing a Ph.D. or postdoctoral positions. - Continual Learning and Research Updates: Evolutionary biology is a rapidly evolving field with new discoveries and advancements. Graduates of evolutionary biology programs are encouraged to stay updated with the latest research by reading scientific literature, attending conferences, and engaging in continuing education opportunities. They develop a mindset of lifelong learning, which is crucial for staying at the forefront of the field. By completing an evolutionary biology degree program, students acquire a strong foundation in biological sciences with a specialized focus on evolutionary processes. They develop critical thinking, research, and communication skills necessary for pursuing careers in academia, research institutions, conservation organizations, government agencies, or other related fields. The comprehensive curriculum prepares them to contribute to the understanding of life’s diversity and the mechanisms driving evolutionary change. **Types of Degrees in Evolutionary Biology** In the field of evolutionary biology, there are several types of degrees that individuals can pursue to specialize in the subject. These degrees range from undergraduate to graduate levels and provide varying levels of specialization and research opportunities. Here are the main types of degrees available in evolutionary biology: - Bachelor’s Degree in Biology/Evolutionary Biology: A Bachelor’s Degree in Biology with a specialization or concentration in evolutionary biology provides students with a foundational understanding of the subject. This degree typically covers core biological sciences, genetics, ecology, and evolution. It lays the groundwork for further specialization and can lead to entry-level positions or serve as a stepping stone to advanced degrees. - Master’s Degree in Evolutionary Biology: A Master’s Degree in Evolutionary Biology allows students to deepen their knowledge and research skills in the field. This degree typically involves coursework in advanced topics in evolutionary biology, genetics, population biology, and research methods. Students may also have the opportunity to conduct independent research, culminating in a thesis or a research project. - Ph.D. in Evolutionary Biology: A Ph.D. in Evolutionary Biology is the highest level of academic degree one can pursue in the field. It is designed for individuals seeking to conduct original, in-depth research in evolutionary biology. Ph.D. programs involve advanced coursework, comprehensive exams, and the completion of a doctoral dissertation based on independent research. This degree prepares individuals for careers in academia, research institutions, and leadership positions in the field. - Joint or Interdisciplinary Degrees: Some universities offer joint or interdisciplinary degrees that combine evolutionary biology with other disciplines. For example, a joint degree in evolutionary biology and ecology may provide a broader understanding of the interactions between organisms and their environment. Joint degrees can enhance interdisciplinary research and career opportunities. - Undergraduate and Graduate Certificates: In addition to traditional degrees, there may be undergraduate and graduate certificate programs available in evolutionary biology. These certificate programs offer specialized training and knowledge in evolutionary biology and can be pursued alongside or after completing a degree program. They provide focused coursework and may require the completion of a research or fieldwork component. It’s important to note that the availability and specific structure of these degrees may vary between institutions. Prospective students should research individual universities and their programs to understand the specific requirements, curriculum, and research opportunities offered in evolutionary biology. **Best Schools For Evolutionary Biology in the US** There are several top-ranked institutions in the United States known for their excellence in the field of evolutionary biology. Here are some of the best schools in the US for evolutionary biology: - Harvard University: Harvard University is renowned for its strong biology department and has prominent faculty members specializing in evolutionary biology. The university offers various undergraduate and graduate programs, including a Ph.D. program in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, providing extensive research opportunities and access to cutting-edge facilities. - University of California, Berkeley: The University of California, Berkeley has a prestigious Department of Integrative Biology, offering a wide range of courses and research opportunities in evolutionary biology. The campus is known for its interdisciplinary approach and collaborative research environment, fostering innovative and groundbreaking research in evolutionary biology. - Stanford University: Stanford University has a prominent biology department and offers research opportunities in evolutionary biology through its Department of Biology and the Hopkins Marine Station. The university provides state-of-the-art research facilities and a supportive academic community for students interested in studying evolution. - University of Chicago: The University of Chicago has a renowned Department of Ecology and Evolution, known for its research excellence in evolutionary biology. The department offers undergraduate and graduate programs that provide a strong foundation in evolutionary theory and research methods. The university’s affiliation with the Field Museum of Natural History further enhances research opportunities in evolutionary biology. - University of California, Santa Cruz: The University of California, Santa Cruz is well-regarded for its programs in evolutionary biology and ecology. The university’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology offers a diverse range of courses and research opportunities, with a focus on fieldwork and hands-on learning. The proximity to various natural habitats provides unique opportunities for ecological and evolutionary research. - University of Michigan: The University of Michigan has a prominent Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, known for its rigorous academic programs and research opportunities. The department offers undergraduate and graduate degrees with specialized tracks in evolutionary biology. The university’s Museum of Zoology and Museum of Paleontology also provide valuable resources for studying evolutionary biology. - University of Arizona: The University of Arizona has a strong reputation in evolutionary biology, particularly in the field of evolutionary genetics and genomics. The Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology offers a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs, emphasizing both theoretical and empirical approaches to evolutionary biology. - University of Wisconsin-Madison: The University of Wisconsin-Madison has a renowned Department of Integrative Biology that offers undergraduate and graduate programs in evolutionary biology. The department has a strong emphasis on evolutionary research, with faculty members conducting cutting-edge studies on various aspects of evolution. **Career Paths** A degree in evolutionary biology can open up various career paths, allowing individuals to work in diverse fields that involve the study and application of evolutionary principles. Here are some examples of careers you can pursue with a degree in evolutionary biology: - [Evolutionary Biologist/Researcher](/careers/evolutionary-biologist/): Many evolutionary biologists work as research scientists in academic institutions, research organizations, or government agencies. They conduct original research, design experiments, collect and analyze data, and publish their findings in scientific journals. Research scientists often specialize in specific areas of evolutionary biology, such as population genetics, molecular evolution, or ecological adaptation. - [University Professor or Lecturer](/careers/professor/): With a Ph.D. in evolutionary biology, you can pursue a career as a university professor or lecturer. In this role, you would teach undergraduate and graduate courses in evolutionary biology, conduct research, supervise student research projects, and publish scientific papers. Professors also contribute to the academic community by attending conferences, reviewing research papers, and serving on scientific committees. - [Conservation Scientist](/careers/conservation-scientist/): Evolutionary biologists can work as conservation scientists, focusing on the preservation and management of biodiversity. They study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of species, assess threats to populations, and develop conservation strategies. Conservation scientists may work for government agencies, non-profit organizations, or environmental consulting firms. - [Wildlife Biologist](/careers/wildlife-biologist/): Wildlife biologists study the behavior, ecology, and evolution of animals in their natural habitats. They may work in various settings, such as national parks, wildlife reserves, or research institutions. Wildlife biologists collect field data, monitor populations, study animal behavior, and contribute to conservation efforts by assessing the impact of human activities on wildlife populations. - [Geneticist](/careers/geneticist/): Evolutionary biology and genetics are closely intertwined. With a background in evolutionary biology, you can pursue a career as a geneticist, studying genetic variations within and between populations. Geneticists may work in research laboratories, medical institutions, or agricultural settings, conducting genetic analyses, investigating the genetic basis of traits, and developing genetic improvement strategies. - Science Writer or Communicator: If you have a passion for both evolutionary biology and communication, you can work as a science writer or communicator. In this role, you would translate complex scientific concepts into accessible language for the general public. You could write articles, blog posts, or educational materials, or work as a science journalist, reporting on new discoveries and advancements in evolutionary biology. - [Curator](/careers/curator/): Museums and science centers often employ evolutionary biologists as curators or educators. In these roles, you would develop exhibits, organize collections, and create educational programs that showcase evolutionary principles and the diversity of life. Museum curators and educators also engage with the public through guided tours, workshops, and interactive displays. - [Environmental Consultant](/careers/environmental-consultant/): Environmental consulting firms employ evolutionary biologists to assess the impact of human activities on ecosystems and biodiversity. As an environmental consultant, you would conduct environmental impact assessments, develop conservation plans, and provide expertise on issues related to evolutionary biology and ecology. These are just a few examples of the career paths available to individuals with a degree in evolutionary biology. The field offers a wide range of opportunities, and career choices often depend on individual interests, specialization, and further education or training.
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$58kRead more about Epidemiology
Epidemiology, a fundamental science of public health, is concerned with health and disease at the population level; that is to say, within groups or communities. Its focus is the frequency, pattern, causes, and risk factors of diseases and other health-related events within these specified populations, which range from neighborhoods and schools to cities, states, countries, and the world at large.
Epidemiologists – often referred to as disease detectives – are the scientists and investigators whose work begins with looking for clues by asking questions. Who is sick? What are their symptoms? When did they get sick? Where could they have been exposed? Using statistical analysis, epidemiologists study answers to these questions and produce data that lead them to identify how a particular health problem was introduced, how its spread can be controlled, and how it can be prevented.
The historical foundation of epidemiology is the study of the causes and symptoms of infectious diseases or epidemics. Examples include Legionnaires’ Disease and SARS. The field has grown significantly, however, and now encompasses the study of all types of health conditions and risks.
Degree programs in epidemiology include coursework in public health, the biological and physical sciences, and statistics. Students learn about statistical methods, causal analysis, survey design, and applications of data.