What is a Cardiothoracic Surgeon?
A cardiothoracic surgeon is a highly specialized medical doctor who focuses on surgical procedures related to the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs located in the chest or thoracic cavity. These surgeons typically perform complex procedures to treat conditions such as heart disease, lung cancer, congenital heart defects, and other thoracic disorders.
Cardiothoracic surgeons may work in hospitals, clinics, or private practice, and their work is often done in collaboration with other medical professionals, including cardiologists, pulmonologists, anesthesiologists, and other specialists. The work of a cardiothoracic surgeon can be emotionally and physically challenging, but it can also be highly rewarding, as these professionals have the opportunity to improve the lives of their patients by performing life-saving surgeries and other procedures.
What does a Cardiothoracic Surgeon do?
Duties and Responsibilities
The duties and responsibilities of a cardiothoracic surgeon may vary depending on their practice setting, the patient population they serve, and their area of specialization. However, some common duties and responsibilities of cardiothoracic surgeons include:
- Diagnosing and treating thoracic conditions: Cardiothoracic surgeons are responsible for diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the organs located in the chest or thoracic cavity, including the heart, lungs, esophagus, and blood vessels. They use diagnostic tools such as imaging tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and blood tests to assess patients' conditions and determine appropriate treatment plans.
- Performing surgical procedures: Cardiothoracic surgeons perform a variety of surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), heart valve repair or replacement, lung surgery, and esophageal surgery. They may also perform minimally invasive procedures such as robotic-assisted surgery, thoracoscopic surgery, or endoscopic procedures.
- Managing patients before and after surgery: Cardiothoracic surgeons are responsible for managing patients' care before, during, and after surgery. They may work with anesthesiologists, critical care physicians, and other healthcare professionals to ensure that patients receive appropriate care and support during their recovery.
- Providing patient education and counseling: Cardiothoracic surgeons often work with patients and their families to provide education and counseling about their condition, treatment options, and recovery. They may also provide guidance on lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, that can help patients manage their condition.
- Conducting research and contributing to medical education: Cardiothoracic surgeons may conduct research to advance the field of cardiothoracic surgery and improve patient outcomes. They may also teach and train medical students, residents, and fellows in cardiothoracic surgery techniques and procedures.
Types of Cardiothoracic Surgeons
There are several types of cardiothoracic surgeons, including:
- Cardiac Surgeons: These surgeons specialize in surgical procedures related to the heart. They perform procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), heart valve repair or replacement, and heart transplant surgeries.
- Thoracic Surgeons: These surgeons specialize in surgical procedures related to the lungs, esophagus, and other organs located in the chest. They perform procedures such as lung cancer surgery, esophageal surgery, and mediastinal tumor removal.
- Congenital Heart Surgeons: These surgeons specialize in surgical procedures for patients born with heart defects. They perform procedures such as congenital heart defect repairs, heart valve repairs or replacements, and other complex procedures.
- Transplant Surgeons: These surgeons specialize in surgical procedures related to organ transplantation. They may perform heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant surgeries.
- Minimally Invasive Surgeons: These surgeons specialize in using minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery, thoracoscopic surgery, or endoscopic procedures, to perform cardiothoracic surgeries with smaller incisions and less recovery time.
These are just some of the types of cardiothoracic surgeons. Within each specialty, there may be further subspecialties or areas of focus, depending on the surgeon's training and experience.
What is the workplace of a Cardiothoracic Surgeon like?
Cardiothoracic surgeons typically work in hospitals or medical centers, where they may perform a range of surgeries involving the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs within the chest cavity. These surgeries may include coronary artery bypass grafting, heart valve replacement or repair, lung resection, or transplant procedures.
The work environment for a cardiothoracic surgeon is typically fast-paced and high-pressure, with long hours and demanding surgical cases. Surgeons may spend a significant amount of time in the operating room, but may also be involved in preoperative and postoperative care, including patient consultations, diagnostic testing, and follow-up appointments.
In addition to working in hospitals, some cardiothoracic surgeons may work in academic medical centers or research institutions, where they may also be involved in teaching, training, and research activities related to their field.
Frequently Asked Questions
Comprehensive List of Doctor Specializations and Degrees
Here is a comprehensive list of specializations that a doctor can pursue and a brief summary of each specialization:
- Allergist: An allergist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of allergies, asthma, and related conditions. Allergists have specialized training in the recognition and management of allergic reactions.
- Anesthesiologist: An anesthesiologist keeps a patient comfortable, safe and pain-free during surgery by administering local or general anesthetic.
- Cardiologist: A cardiologist specializes in finding, treating, and preventing diseases that affect the heart, the arteries, and the veins.
- Cardiothoracic Surgeon: A cardiothoracic surgeon specializes in surgical procedures inside the thorax (the chest), which may involve the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs in the chest. As well as performing surgery, they also diagnose and treat diseases of these organs.
- Chiropractic Neurologist: A chiropractic neurologist is a specialized type of chiropractor who has undergone additional training in the field of neurology. They diagnose and treat conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the nervous system.
- Chiropractor: A chiropractor, or doctor of chiropractic medicine, specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the musculoskeletal and nervous system, especially in the spine. Treatment is usually physical manipulation of the joints and the spine to bring them back into alignment. A chiropractor does not perform surgery or prescribe medication.
- Colorectal Surgeon: A colorectal surgeon specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus, as well as the entire gastric tract. These surgeons work closely with urologists, who handle the urogenital tract in males and the urinary tract of women, gynecologists, who deal with specific female issues, and gastroenterologists, who deal with diseases of the gut.
- Doctor: An general overview of what a doctor does and how to become one.
- Dentist: Dentists identify potential oral health issues such as gum disease, as well as examine patients, order medical tests and determine the correct diagnosis and treatment. They also perform oral surgery and remove teeth or address other dental health problems.
- Dermatologist: A dermatologist specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions affecting skin, hair, sweat and oil glands, nails, and mucus membranes (inside the mouth, nose, and eyelids) which can include cancer.
- Emergency Medicine Physician: An emergency medicine physician works in emergency departments, hospitals, and urgent care clinics, and is often the first medical professional that patients see when they are in need of urgent medical care.
- Endocrinologist: An endocrinologist specializes in diagnosing conditions and diseases related to the glands and hormones. While primary care doctors know a lot about the human body, for conditions and diseases directly related to glands and hormones they will typically send a patient to an endocrinologist.
- Family Practitioner: A family practitioner specializes in caring for the entire family. Patients can be children, adults, and the elderly, and are treated for a wide array of medical issues.
- Forensic Pathologist: A forensic pathologist investigates the cause of sudden and unexpected deaths, and is able to determine how a person died by performing an autopsy and studying tissue and laboratory results. These doctors are often called upon to provide evidence in court regarding the cause and time of such deaths.
- Gastroenterologist: A gastroenterologist has specific training in diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This may include diseases and disorders that affect the the biliary system (liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and bile ducts), as well as the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (colon).
- Geriatrician: A geriatrician specializes in the care of elderly patients, and often works with patients who have multiple chronic conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease, as well as age-related cognitive and functional impairments.
- Gynecologist: A gynecologist specializes in women's reproductive systems. Gynecologists are also sometimes certified as obstetricians, and will monitor the health of the mother and the fetus during a pregnancy.
- Hematologist: A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders, such as anemia and leukemia.
- Hospitalist: A hospitalist is a physician whose focus is the general medical care of hospitalized patients. Their duties include patient care, teaching, research, and leadership related to hospital medicine.
- Immunologist: An immunologist specializes in managing problems related to the immune system, such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. A smaller number of immunologists are strictly researchers seeking to better understand how the immune system works and to help develop better ways of diagnosing and providing treatment for many immunological conditions.
- Infectious Disease Specialist: A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and hepatitis.
- Internist: An internist is a 'doctor of internal medicine' who can diagnose, treat, and practice compassionate care for adults across the spectrum, from health to complex illness. They are not to be mistaken with "interns," who are doctors in their first year of residency training.
- Medical Examiner: Medical examiners are responsible for performing autopsies and collecting evidence related to the circumstances of a death, including medical history, physical examination findings, and toxicology tests.
- Naturopathic Physician: A naturopathic physician blends modern scientific medical practice and knowledge with natural and traditional forms of medical treatment. The goal is to treat the underlying causes of disease while stimulating the body's own healing abilities.
- Nephrologist: A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. They treat conditions such as chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, kidney stones, hypertension, and electrolyte imbalances.
- Neurologist: A neurologist specializes in treating diseases that affect the human nervous system. It is a very prestigious and difficult medical specialty due to the complexity of the nervous system, which consists of the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves.
- Neurosurgeon: A neurosurgeon specializes in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes congenital anomalies, trauma, tumours, vascular disorders, infections of the brain or spine, stroke, or degenerative diseases of the spine.
- Obstetrician: An obstetrician is a medical doctor who specializes in caring for women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
- Occupational Physician: Occupational medicine is focused on keeping individuals well at work, both mentally and physically. As workplaces become more complex, occupational physicians play an important role in advising people on how their work can affect their health.
- Oncologist: An oncologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The three primary types of oncologists are: medical oncologists that specialize in the administration of drugs to kill cancer cells; surgical oncologists that perform surgical procedures to identify and remove cancerous tumors; and radiation oncologists that treat cancer with radiation therapy.
- Ophthalmologist: An ophthalmologist is a specialist that deals specifically with the structure, function, diseases, and treatment of the eye. Due to the complexities and the importance of the eye as a special sense that provides vision, the discipline of ophthalmology is dedicated solely to this organ.
- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon: An oral and maxillofacial surgeon treats dental and medical problems involving the oral cavity and the maxillofacial area. The maxillofacial area includes the bones of the forehead, face, cheekbones and the soft tissues. Treatment often involves performing surgery and related procedures to treat diseases, defects, or injuries, and to improve function or appearance.
- Orthopaedic Surgeon / Orthopedist: An orthopaedic surgeon (or orthopedist) examines, diagnoses, and treats diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and nerves.
- Orthodontist: An orthodontist specializes in how the jaws and teeth are aligned. They help people whose teeth are misaligned or require some kind of correction – those with an improper bite, or malocclusion.
- Osteopath: Osteopaths have attended and graduated from an osteopathic medical school and practise the system of healthcare known as osteopathy. They consider all aspects of the patient, not just the symptoms they exhibit. They see the integrated nature of the body’s organ systems and its capacity for self-regulation and self-healing.
- Otolaryngologist: Otolaryngologists (or ENT physicians) are specialists trained in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structures of the head and neck. These specialists are trained in both medicine and surgery.
- Pathologist: A pathologist studies the causes, nature, and effects of disease. The field of pathology is broad with concentrations on changes in cells, tissues, and organs that are the result of a disease.
- Pediatrician: A pediatrician specializes in providing medical care to infants, children and teenagers by administering treatments, therapies, medications and vaccinations to treat illness, disorders or injuries.
- Periodontist: A periodontist is a dentist who specializes in oral inflammation, and who knows how to prevent, diagnose, and treat periodontal disease.
- Plastic Surgeon: A plastic surgeon specializes in reshaping healthy body parts for aesthetic reasons, and also in repairing or replacing body parts damaged by accidents, illness or malformation.
- Podiatrist: A podiatrist practices podiatric medicine, which is a branch of science devoted to the diagnosis, treatment and study of medical disorders of the foot, ankle, lower leg and lower back. In the U.S. and Canada, podiatry is practiced as a specialty.
- Prosthodontist: A prosthodontist specializes in restoring the look, function, comfort, and health of a patient's oral cavity with artificial materials. These artificial materials are made up of a wide variety of restorations that include fillings, dentures, veneers, crowns, bridges and oral implants.
- Psychiatrist: Psychiatrists are physicians who evaluate, diagnose and treat patients who are affected by a temporary or chronic mental health problem.
- Pulmonologist: A pulmonologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary (lung) conditions and diseases of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections.
- Radiologist: A radiologist is a specialist in interpreting medical images that may be obtained with x-rays, (CT scans or radiographs), nuclear medicine (involving radioactive substances, magnetism (MRI), or ultrasound.
- Rheumatologist: A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
- Sports Medicine Physician: A sports medicine physician specializes in taking care of people who have sports injuries that may be acquired from playing sports, exercising, or from otherwise being physically active.
- Surgeon: A surgeon performs surgery for the purpose of removing diseased tissue or organs, to repair body systems, or to replace diseased organs with transplants.
- Urologist: A urologist specializes in the treatment of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs. Urologists can treat the kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, uterus, and male reproductive organs. There are also specific specialty areas that urologists may choose to focus on, such as pediatric urology, male infertility, and urologic oncology.
- Vascular Medicine Specialist - A vascular medicine specialist specializes in the diagnosis and nonsurgical treatment of conditions affecting the blood vessels. They may work with patients who have conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, peripheral artery disease, or pulmonary embolism.
- Vascular Surgeon - A vascular surgeon specializes in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of conditions affecting the blood vessels, including aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, and varicose veins.
- Osteopathic Medicine
- Naturopathic Medicine
- Podiatric Medicine
- Veterinary Medicine
Cardiothoracic Surgeons are also known as:
Cardiac Surgeon Cardiovascular Surgeon General Thoracic Surgeon Congenital Heart Surgeon Heart Surgeon